Thursday, March 26, 2020
Words themselves are innocuous; it is the consensus that gives them true power, Gloria Anally. This statement couldnt be truer. The validity of this here statement is the cause of conflict, in this story and our society as we know it today. There are many words in the average Americans vocabulary that can cause conflict when used, however none more than Niger. Its not the meaning of the word Niger that causes Issues, Its the agreement among different groups of people what the word means, hen, and how it is used.Anally begins telling her story of the first time she heard the word rugged. She starts by Informing us how growing up the word Niger was used In my presence, but It was set within contexts and Inflections caused It to register In my mind as something else. Therefore In the third grade when she was called a enlarger, It wasnt really the first time she had heard the word. We will write a custom essay sample on Mommy what does nigger mean essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page However she states that even though the word had been used around her before, she didnt really hear It until It was used to MultiMate her: this is where the issue is presented.This is exactly why I hate this word. It was once used a word of disgust referring to black people. However now, mainly by the black community, we have adopted and changed the word into something we use as a term of generalization, endearment, and as a descriptive word. It is used by people every day all around the world, just as a word in their everyday vocabulary. Still though, as soon as it rolls off the tongue wrong, letters are rearranged, or Just comes out of the wrong persons mouth, it is no anger a word of endearment or generalization, but now a word of hate.Therefore I believe it would be better off if this word was no longer used. I believe Analogys essay was incredibly written in a style that was very persuasive. She began by introducing us to some very valid points having to do with the power of words and words versus writing. She then began telling her story, but instead of lumping right into the conclusion, she gave us background on her family and painted a very vivid picture in the readers mind.She include the use of pathos to appeal to the readers emotions which in a subject like the word Niger, people can be very emotionally effected. These are all things I observed and would like to incorporate Into my essay. Mommy what does Niger mean essay By Charbroiling issues, its the agreement among different groups of people what the word means, Anally begins telling her story of the first time she heard the word Niger.She starts by informing us how growing up the word Niger was used in my presence, UT it was set within contexts and inflections caused it to register in my mind as something else. Therefore in the third grade when she was called a Niger, it wasnt word had been used around her before, she didnt really hear it until it was used to humiliate her; this is where the issue is presented. And as a descriptive word. It is used by people every day all around the world, Just as jumping right into the conclusion, she gave us background on her family and painted into my essay.
Friday, March 6, 2020
The themes of Paddy Clarke Ha essays There are several core themes that run throughout Paddy Clarke Ha Ha Ha. The first one we encounter, on the first page in fact, is the relationship he has with his friends. At the beginning of the novel his friends are a hugely important part of his life, but as the novel progresses, they gradually become less important. Another relationship that changes gradually is that with his brother, as his friendship with Kevin and his gang is degrading, Paddys relationship with his brother is slowly improving. He is no longer just a target for his abuse, and gains Paddys admiration, and at times his jealousy. The most prominent theme throughout the book though is Paddys relationship with his parents. It is his parents, who have most influence over him, and he admires them greatly, we constantly see him, studying their mannerisms, and trying to determine why they have done certain things. Like the other central relationships in the book, Paddys relationship with his ma and da, change over th e course of the novel. At the beginning, he is slightly in awe of his da, and seeks his approval constantly, but as he sees another side to his da, his need for his approval diminishes and he spends more time with his ma, possibly trying to protect her. The breakdown of the marriage is another theme to be examined. At the beginning of the novel, we see Paddy as a carefree kid, but as the fights become more frequent, we see fewer tales of Paddys mischief and Paddy becomes more introverted. He stays awake for hours on end attempting to stop the fights with the power of thought alone. The fights have a profound effect on Paddy, he blames himself, and begins to examine all around him, looking for reasons as to why the two people he loves are constantly bickering. Paddys maturing process is an important theme also. His transition from wide-eyed innocent to man of the family is a painful one for Paddy; he is forced ...
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
General Electric - Case Study Example One such company is Sanyo Epson. ISO 14031 is used globally to evaluate organisations in the "manufacturing, health services, transportation, electric utility and municipal sectors in order to evaluate environmental performance (EPE), provide a basis for performance benchmarking, demonstrate compliance to regulations and increase operational efficiency" (ISO 14031, par. 1) It assists organisations to obtain ISO 14001 certification. Other companies, for instance, General Electric, have focused their efforts mostly inward, with the integration of high-tech programs to track their progress. In today's business environment, performance measurement relates to all aspects of business from leadership to management to employees to customers. It is a method by which company output, brand recognition, cooperation and interaction with other companies are measured. Because GE has expanded its product line to include almost every area of manufacturing, a successful environmental management progra m must be able to cover every phase of their business, from supply chain to operations to marketing. GE has the broadest array of infrastructure products, services and financing in the world, "from Energy to Aviation to Transportation to Water to Oil & Gas" (General Electric 2006, p.
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Management - questions - Essay Example Going by globalization, consumers do have access to a wider range of goods and services. Globalization allows the MNCs and countries to produce goods at most competitive prices by allowing for the usage of inputs from diverse sources. Globalization also enables the nations and MNCs to have access to wider markets. In an international context, globalization ushers in harmony and coexistence amongst varied nations. It allows the businesses, inventors and entrepreneurs to access much greater opportunities for manufacturing and investment. Globalization allows for the management of business fluctuations like the rise in the prices of food items in any country by making way for the pooling of production from diverse sources. Yet, this in no way means that globalization has everything good associated with it. Globalization also has its disadvantages. Considering the fact that globalization allows for a sharing of markets and resources, this may lead to the stifling of growth and developmen t in the undeveloped nations or small local companies by more developed nations or stronger MNCs. Globalization has also allowed for the integration of world markets. A direct consequence of this is the spreading of economic fluctuations in one country to the other countries and economies dependant on it. For instance, the recent housing bubble bust and the ensuing recession in the USA soon spread to Europe and many developing Asian economies. In a pragmatic context, as globalization involves exchange of people and resources amongst nations, it could lead to a spread of communicable diseases and pests from one nation to other. The mad cow epidemic in Europe soon impacted the beef consumption around the world, thereby impacting the beef producers at a global level. Globalization has made the markets more competitive. Hence, the big MNCs having ample resources at their disposal may suppress the rise of smaller local companies. Globalization is a process allowing the sharing of resourc es, technologies, cultures and ideas and hence it has its merits and demerits. 2. The advantages and disadvantages of centralized and customized decision making are to a great extent dependant on the organizational structure of an institution or organization and the qualities inherent in it. In a centralized organization, it is the top managers who take all the important decisions without soliciting any inputs from below. Centralized decision making is mostly opted for by such companies who wish to consolidate the power and decision making at the top level. Companies opt for centralized decision making owing to varied reasons. For instance if the CEO of a specific company harbors a specific visions and intends to keep it pure and in consonance with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions, one will centralize the decision making functions so as to retain as much control over the company as possible. Vatican is an apt example of an institution that is given to centralized decision making. Centralize d decision making also helps the companies that are facing a crisis and hence desire to be led by one decision making source to ensure stability. However, centralized decision making is of little advantage in a company which has a smart and diversified work force and that operates in multiple markets. As in a centralized decision making framework, the entire power is consolidated with the top management, this could jeopardize the stability of a company if the top management fails owing to losing touch with the ground realities. In
Monday, January 27, 2020
Corporate Governance And Ethics Practice This report looks at the differences of the sustainability report for year 2011 of the two companies that from the same automotive industry and based in different countries. The first company is a Volkswagen Group, which is a German multinational automotive manufacturing company based in Wolfsburg and founded in 1937. The area served of Volkswagen Group is worldwide and it produced almost 8.5 million vehicles in year 2011. It is one of the worlds leading motor automobile manufacturers and has kept the largest market share in Europe for over 20 years (Wikipedia, 2012). The second company is a Mazda Motor Corporation, which is the Japanese automotive manufacturer headquartered in Fuchu Aki Hiroshima and founded in 1920. The area served of Mazda Motor Corporation is worldwide and it produced almost 1.3 million vehicles for global sales in 2007 (Wikipedia, 2012). Are all the car manufacturers harmful to society and environment? Based on these two firms sustainability reporting, both firms have revealed that they are taking their corporate social responsibility seriously which will audit and measure their activities, and putting money into green research. The two automotive companies, of course, have to comply with toughening fuel economy regulations reduce the impact of global warming and be more compliant because there is an increasing market demand that new generation of consumers are looking at fuel economy and sustainability mobility for making decision for what they buy. For fuel economy regulations, according to (Feng Amanda, 2004) in their report for Pew Center on Global Climate Change that the European Union (EU) and Japan have the most stringent standard for requirement for gasoline new passenger car fuel efficiencies as shown in their report. For the purposes of this assignment, the focus will be on sets out the differences between the reports of the two companies on in terms of the range of issues dealt with in the reports and the depth of the coverage; explains to the differences between the two reports in terms of country factors; assesses the quality of the reporting in terms of Zadeks (1997) criteria (i.e. inclusivity, comparability, completeness, evolution, management policies and systems, disclosure, external verification, and continuous improvement); evaluates the extent to which it would be appropriate for the two companies to use a standardized approach; and makes recommendations about how each of the reports could be improved and why. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TWO REPORTS IN TERMS OF THE RANGE OF ISSUES DEALTH WITH IN THE REPORTS AND THE DEPTH OF THE COVERAGE The sustainability reports of these two automakers have look into consideration of ESG criteria (Environmental, social and corporate governance) and making major strides in these similar sustainability issues: Management Approach; Corporate Governance and Ethics Practice; Environmental Protection; Product Quality and Safety; Workplace Practice; Human Rights; and Community Practice. In terms of reporting structure, Volkswagen Group had divided the report to eight chapters, which are strategy, economy, society, CSR projects worldwide, sustainability mobility, environment, key indicators/figures, and back-up. On the contrary, Mazda Corporate had identified the six chapters, which are Mazda CSR, management, environmental protection, social contributions, customer satisfaction, and respect for people. The next few paragraphs of this report will looks at the coverage of the issues dealt in these chapters and the differences between the two sustainability reports. Management Approach At Strategy chapter, Volkswagen Group had disclosed the management approach on CSR strategy in eight pages that covered company new sustainability objectives, development of top class team, sustainability requirements for suppliers, management approach to the sustainability mobility, sustainability management of corporate social responsibility, stakeholder dialogue, global compact, cooperation with Biodiversity Conservation Union (NABU), and the compliance to corporate code of conduct. Whereas Mazda Corporate had disclosed their approach of CSR strategy in the chapter of Mazda CSR in seven pages that covered corporate vision, CSR operations, external evaluation of CSR, awards, rising of employee awareness, stakeholders communication, shareholders and investor relations initiatives and dialogue. Set-aside the unstandardized of reporting structure, Volkswagen Group had disclosed the basis of information on its stakeholder dialogue program, but had not follow Mazda Corporate to disclose information on how company engages with each key stakeholders that with a full page table of Mazda group key responsibilities to stakeholders and opportunities for dialogue and disclosure. Corporate Governance and Ethics Practice At Economy chapter, Volkswagen Group had covered this chapter in seven topics, which are customer satisfaction, sustainability in suppliers relations, economic stability, raw material, localization, risk management, and compliance. On the contrary, Mazda Corporate covered this in two chapters with total of seven topics, which are corporate governance, internal controls, risk management, compliance, implementing CSR in the value chain, and customer satisfaction. At Customer Satisfaction topic, Volkswagen Group identified customer satisfaction as a key indicator of how well product developments and model facelifts cater to the needs of stakeholders, and focuses on market studies, complaint handling, and meets customer wishes. Mazda had covered this topic with extensive information on safety approach from three viewpoints of vehicles, people, and roads and infrastructure, with details information in safety technologies to explain how safety can be achieved. Additionally Mazda also covered extensive information in the four pillars that how the company can increase customer satisfaction, which are creating appealing products, improving product quality, improving customer satisfaction in sales, and improving the quality of after-sales service. At Sustainability in Suppliers Relations topic, Volkswagen Group had explained the system was built on four pillars which are sustainability requirements for suppliers before submitting quotes, an early warning system for minimizing risk, a transparent procurement process, and supplier monitoring and development process. On the contrary, Mazda had covered clearer information that outline on the Mazda supplier CSR guidelines, major channels of communication with supplier, evaluating and recognizing suppliers, measurement and quality improvement program for local suppliers. At Economic Stability topic, Volkswagen looked at global economic competition and stability; the company recognized the effort that to help in global economic is to achieve sustainable success by taking more responsibility for the environment and for social developments. This topic not covered by Mazda. At Raw Material topic, Volkswagen Group had revealed the secure and economic supplies of raw materials program, which contains corporate analysis system and regularly engages in dialogue with the Extractive Industries Transparencies Initiative (EITI) to identify risk of corruption. This topic not covered by Mazda. At Localization topic, Volkswagen Group had covered the implementation of systematic localization that had proven not only benefits in logistical but commercially and generates growth in the respective regions at new Volkswagen plan. This topic is not cover by Mazda. At Risk Management topic, Volkswagen Group had disclosed information on its risk management programs briefly. As a comparison, Mazda had enclosed more information on risk management policy, action guidelines, and methods of implementing, and the scopes of application. At Compliance topic, Volkswagen had outlined its compliance effort to keep in line with Germane Corporate Governance Code, which is core compliance teams were appointed, annually evaluation of compliance activities, anti-trust legislation matters, and corruption measurement. On the contrary, Mazda had revealed extensive information on corporate governance framework diagram that help in better understanding of company effort in dealing with management issues and how company boost transparency of management with board of corporate auditors. Also Mazda had covered internal controls topic that not by Volkswagen Group, which is disclosed its own self-examination of internal controls framework that having a department to support internal controls. Workplace Practice, Human Rights and Community Practice At Society and CSR Projects Worldwide chapter, Volkswagen Group had covered three ethic issues here, which are Workplace Practice, Human Rights and Community Practice. There are three topics covered, which are employment, reward and profit sharing system, AUTOUNI institution, Volkswagen way, employee opinion survey, ideal management, training and skills development, demographic change, advancing women and promoting diversity, social responsibility, and reveals on CSR projects worldwide. On the contrary, Mazda Corporation had covered in eight topics, which are social contribution framework, major activities in Japan and overseas, human development resolving around the principles of the Mazda Way, employee choice of self-realization, promoting work-life balance, advancing women and promoting diversity, reward and profit sharing system, and respect for human rights. As a comparison, Mazda had included a great data in the same page to explain their measurement and how Mazda achieve the g oals. Environmental Protection and Sustainability In terms of environmental protection and sustainability issue, these two companies had revealed their strategies in similar structure and topics, as shown in the table 1 below. The major differences between the two reports are Mazda had disclosed an impressive Mazda Green Plan 2020 Mid-Term Environmental Plan and clear data within the topic that help in understanding the topic. Both companies had covered good information on how they promote in climate protection, and the coverage are CO2 emissions reduction for automobile, energy supply strategy, environment factory, efficient production, environmental technology, green IT, and green logistics. Table 1: Comparing the coverage of environmental protection and sustainability issue: Volkswagen Group Mazda Corporation Environmental Management Mazda Approach to the Environment This is not cover by Volkswagen. Green Plan 2020 Mid-Term Environmental Efficient Powertrains and Fuels Developing New SKYACTIV Technology Electro-mobility Making Environmentally Friendly vehicles Resource Efficient Recycling and Resource Conservation Biodiversity Management and Reduction of substances Water Preventing Air and Water Pollution This is not cover by Volkswagen. Environmental Communication Climate Protection Prevention of Global Warming This is not cover by Volkswagen. Environmental Communication This is not cover by Volkswagen. Activities and Impact on the environment DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TWO REPORTS IN TERMS OF COUNTRY OR INDUSTRY FACTORS The effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake in year 2011 has influenced on how Mazda Corporate structured and produced their sustainability reporting. The word earthquake had appeared 25 times in the sustainability report. The top message of chairman of the board has included a paragraph to express company sympathies and condolences message. The paragraph explained how company makes a concerted effort to establish their ethical strategies, and deploy response plan into action to contribute in recovery for the areas affected by earthquake. The details of support activities for the recovery of stricken regions have presented in this formal report. The report also reveals the damage to Mazda group that Hiroshima Plant and Hofu Plant where forced to suspend operations temporary due to inability to obtain certain parts, and Mazda moved to weekly days off from Saturday and Sunday to Thursday and Friday during the summer period in accordance with the policy of the Japan Automobile Manufa cturers Association to reduce electricity consumption. For CSR strategy, Mazda Corporate evaluates its CSR strategy referencing to the Charter of Corporate Behavior issued by the Japan Business Federation (Nippon Keidanren, 2004), and structure the table of contents of the sustainability report on these areas of Environmental Protection, Customer Satisfaction, Respect for People, Social Contributions, and Management (Compliance and Information Disclosure). Whereas Volkswagen Group has referencing their CSR strategy with EU Strategy 2011-14 (European Trade Union Confederation ETUC, 2011) and structure the table of contents in these areas of Strategy, Economy, Society, CSR Projects Worldwide, Sustainability Mobility, Environment, Key Indicators, and Back-up. In terms of code of ethics, Volkswagen Group has paragraph their compliance report in line with the German Corporate Governance Code, aside of Volkswagen corporate ethics codes of conduct. Per required by section 161 of the Aktiengesetz (AktG German Stock Corporation Act), an annual of conformity with the German Corporate Governance Code has issued by the Board of Management and the supervisory Board of Volkswagen AG on November 18, 2011 (Volkswagen, n.d.). Whereas Mazda Corporation has outlined their five principles of Mazda corporate ethics code of conduct. THE QUALITY OF THE REPORTING IN TERMS OF ZADEKs (1997) CRITERIA This paragraph looks at the quality of the reporting in terms of ZADEK et al.s (1997) eight principles of quality in social accounting. To what extend the reporting of two companies conforms to and contributes to the best practice. The eight issues are Inclusivity, Comparability, Completeness, Evolution, Management policies and systems, Disclosure, External verification, and Continuous Improvement. Inclusivity AAA Comparability AAA Completeness AAA Evolution AAA Management policies and systems AAA External verification AAA Continuous Improvement AAA THE EXTENT TO WHICH IT WOULD BE APPROPRIATE FOR THE TWO COMPANIES TO USE A STANDARDISED APPROACH Currently the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) framework, version 3.1, is the most widely used standardized sustainability reporting framework in the world (Wikipedia, 2012). The two companies have adopted the GRI framework as a reference to compile their reports. However both companies reports are not prepared exactly according to GRI guidelines and structure. Should two companies have to use a standardized approach for their sustainability reports that will exactly according to a GRI framework, so that it is helpful for reader to navigate the report, finding specific information, and easier to compare data among similar companies. Or should companies are recommended to be selective or focus primary that are most relevant to their business. To what extent that it would be appropriate for the two companies to use a standardized approach? It is not possible for the two companies to presence their data in sustainability reporting exactly the same structure and templates because each company is having their own reporting tools, data and context. However it is possible that the two companies to disclose and to measure of the extent to GRI Guideline Content Indexes. However as per Crane Matten (2010, p. 219) recognized that there is an issue with GRI which GRI has been criticized is its concern only with establishing procedures for voluntary reporting, rather than having an explicit aim to promote mandatory reporting. So it is not a regulation that company must follow the same GRI framework rules to prepare company sustainability report. Every company is free to determine its own data according to rules of its own choosing, and there is no performance or penalty at all. The new GRI fourth generation is now in development. It is an opportunity for the GRI seeking input from worldwide into development of the new standard which cater all the possible gaps in standardized approach. With the new G4 GRI standard it should improve on content in the current guidelines that could possibility encourage companies to use a standardized approach. THE RECOMMENDATIONS ABOUT HOW EACH OF THE REPORTS COULD BE IMPROVED AND WHY GRI Content Index Mazda Corporation could improve their sustainability report by including a comparative table with GRI content indexes that disclose all items in the report at each rows of GRI content index. On the contrary, Volkswagen Group had included the GRI content index but the reference column that contains page number can be confused to some readers and might be pointing to the wrong topic. The comparative table with GRI content index could provides an objective to measure whether all the elements in GRI guidelines have been applied in the report. It is definitely helpful for reader to find specific information and to compare data among similar industry. The sample of comparative table with GRI content index has shown below. Table 2: The Sample of Comparative Table with GRI content index (G3.1): Item GRI Content Volkswagen Group Mazda Corporation Strategy and Analysis 1.1 Statement from the most senior decision maker -Responsibilities increase with commercial success (Page 6-7) -Top Message (Page 5-6) 1.2 Key Impacts, risks -Responsibilities increase with commercial success (Page 6-7) -Responsibilities (Page 10-19) -Compliance (Page 28-29) -Top Message (Page 5-6) -Management (Page 21-22) Organization Profile 2.1 Name of the organization Page 1, 3 Page 1-2 GRI Content Index Mazda Corporation. CONCLUSION Reporting on sustainability performance is an important way for organizations to manage their impact on sustainable development. The challenges of sustainable development are many, and it is widely accepted that organizations have not only a responsibility but also a great ability to exert positive change on the state of the worlds economy, and environmental and social conditions. Reporting leads to improved sustainable development outcomes because it allows organizations to measure, track, and improve their performance on specific issues. Organizations are much more likely to effectively manage an issue that they can measure. By taking a proactive role to collect, analyze, and report those steps taken by the organization to reduce potential business risk, companies can remain in control of the message they want delivered to its shareholders. Public pressure has proven to be a successful method for promoting Transparency (behavior) and disclosure of greenhouse gas emissions and social responsibilities. As well as helping organizations manage their impacts, sustainability reporting promotes transparency and accountability. This is because an organization discloses information in the public domain. In doing so, stakeholders (people affected by or interested in an organizations operations) can track an organizations performance on broad themes such as environmental performance or a particular issue such as labor conditions in factories. Performance can be monitored year on year or can be compared to other similar organizations. (2704 words) (References/bibliography on the next page)
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Cisco Systems, Inc. is a leading supplier of communications and computer networking products, systems, and services. It was founded in 1984 by Len Bosack and Sandy Lerner. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s product line includes routers, switches, remote access devices, protocol translators, Internet services devices, and networking and network management software. Cisco serves three main market segments: large organizations, including corporations, government entities, utilities, and educational institutions; service providers, including Internet service providers, telephone and cable companies, and providers of wireless communications; and small and medium-sized businesses whose needs include operating networks, connecting to the Internet, and connecting with business partners. Increasingly, CiscoÃ¢â¬â¢s products are appearing in the consumer marketplace. Cisco operates globally, deriving roughly 44 percent of its sales from overseas business. Ã¯ ¬Challenges and Risks Faced in NPI 1.Time-to-Market Pressure Cisco had to launch the new product extremely quickly There is only one year for Cisco to launch the Viking product to market with low cost. Otherwise, the market share might loss. However, it is about 3 to 5 years for Cisco to launch a high-end product. To meet such tighten schedule, it is imperative for Cisco team to perform a very collaborative operation and concurrent engineering in whole supply chain and NPI phase 2.Cost Pressure Bandwidth prices were constantly falling and customer expected continuous improvements in price-performance on their equipment. The competitor keeps intensive discount on price. Cisco had to implement most cost effective-supply chain at launch and product design. 3.Immense Technical Complexity The product router contained about 300,000 components, about 30 times more than in a small business router. How to successfully launch such a high complexity product in a low cost contract manufacturer like Foxconn requires Cisco monitor and cooperate with CM carefully. 4.Outsourcing Production of Complex Machines In order to put all the pieces together with the highest quality, reliability and on-time performance required in the demanding service provider market. Cisco faced the challenges inherent to outsourcing production of such a complex machine, and therefore Cisco would have to work closely with the contractor to reduce production and supply chain risks. 5.Continuous Cost Down Pressure from Emerging Market Cisco needed to ensure that router would be attractive to service providers worldwide. Emerging markets were the fastest-growing part of CiscoÃ¢â¬â¢s business, which needed lower cost, so keeping the routerÃ¢â¬â¢s costs was important to its global success.
Friday, January 10, 2020
America never wanted to participate in World War 1, in fact in August 1914 when the war broke out in Europe; President Woodrow Wilson issued a declaration of neutrality. Preferring to remain isolated from the war, America tried to broker peace between the allies and the axis, the war was in Europe; America did not need to get involved. On May 7th 1915, German U-boats, patrolling in the Atlantic Ocean, fired torpedos at the British passenger ship Lusitania sinking her in 20 minutes. 128 Americans were killed. Woodrow Wilson, demanded that Germany stop attacking passenger ships, and declared that America was too proud to fight. Wilson also tried to mediate a compromise settlement but failed. He also repeatedly warned that America would not tolerate unrestricted submarine warfare, as it was in violation to American ideas of human rights. Wilson was under great pressure from former president Theodore Roosevelt, who denounced German Ã¢â¬Å"piracyÃ¢â¬ and WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s cowardice. In January 1917, Germany announced it would destroy all ships heading to Britain. Although Wilson broke off diplomatic ties with Germany, he still hoped to avert war by arming merchant vessels as a deterrent. Nevertheless, Germany began sinking American ships immediately. On February 1917, British intelligence gave the United States government a decoded telegram from GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign minister, Arthur Zimmerman that had been intercepted en route to his ambassador to Mexico. The Zimmerman Telegram authorized the ambassador to offer Mexico the portions of the Southwest it had lost to the United States in the 1840s if it joined the Central Powers. However, because Wilson had run for re-election in 1916 on a very popular promise to keep the United States out of the European war, he had to handle the telegram very carefully. Wilson did not publicize it at first, only releasing the message to the press in March after weeks of German attacks on American ships had turned public sentiment toward joining the Allies. Later, on 2 April 1917, Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war and four days later all but six senators and fifty representatives voted for a war resolution. The Selective Service Act that was passed the following month, along with an extraordinary number of volunteers, built up the army from less than 250,000 to four million over the course of the conflict. General John Pershing was appointed head of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) and led the first troops to France Then, on April 6th 1917, America declared war on Germany.